Mental Skills Training
These nine mental skills are necessary for performing well in sport as well as in non-sport performance situations. At the Ohio Center for Sport Psychology:
- We believe that these skills are learned and can be improved through instruction and practice.
- We begin our work with each individual by assessing his current proficiency in each of the skills.
- We develop a plan for teaching and enhancing the specific skills that need improvement for the individual.
- We periodically reassess the client’s proficiency in each of the skills in order to evaluate our progress.
The Performance Pyramid
Although each of the nine skills is important, its primary importance will occur during one of three phases: long-term development, immediate preparation for performance, and during performance itself.
Level I – These mental skills constitute a broad base for attaining long-term goals, learning, and sustaining daily practice. They are needed on a day-by-day basis for long periods of time, often months and years.
Level II – These skills are used immediately before performance to prepare for performance. They maybe used just before competition begins, or immediately before a specific performance action, such as a golf shot or a free throw in basketball.
Level III – These skills are used during actual performance behavior.
The pyramid below represents the relationship of the nine skills to one another. Each of the higher levels incorporates and is based upon the skills of the preceding levels.
Detailed Descriptions of the Nine Mental Skills
- Realize that attitude is a choice.
- Choose an attitude that is predominately positive.
- View their sport as an opportunity to compete against themselves and learn from their successes and failures.
- Pursue excellence, not perfection, and realize that they, as well as their coaches, teammates, officials, and others are not perfect.
- Maintain balance and perspective between their sport and the rest of their lives.
- Respect their sport, other participants, coaches, officials, and themselves.
- Are aware of the rewards and benefits that they expect to experience through their sports participation.
- Are able to persist through difficult tasks and difficult times, even when these rewards and benefits are not immediately forthcoming.
- Realize that many of the benefits come from their participation, not the outcome.
3. Goals and Commitment
- Set long-term and short-term goals that are realistic, measurable, and time-oriented.
- Are aware of their current performance levels and are able to develop specific, detailed plans for attaining their goals.
- Are highly committed to their goals and to carrying out the daily demands of their training programs.
4. People Skills
- Realize that they are part of a larger system that includes their families, friends, teammates, coaches, and others.
- When appropriate, communicate their thoughts, feelings, and needs to these people and listen to them as well.
- Have learned effective skills for dealing with conflict, difficult opponents, and other people when they are negative or oppositional.
- Maintain their self-confidence during difficult times with realistic, positive self-talk.
- Talk to themselves the way they would talk to their own best friend
- Use self-talk to regulate thoughts, feelings and behaviors during competition.
6. Mental Imagery
- Prepare themselves for competition by imagining themselves performing well in competition.
- Create and use mental images that are detailed, specific, and realistic.
- Use imagery during competition to prepare for action and recover from errors and poor performances.
7. Dealing Effectively with Anxiety
- Accept anxiety as part of sport.
- Realize that some degree of anxiety can help them perform well.
- Know how to reduce anxiety when it becomes too strong, without losing their intensity.
8. Dealing Effectively with Emotions
- Accept strong emotions such as excitement, anger, and disappointment as part of the sport experience.
- Are able to use these emotions to improve, rather than interfere with high level performance
- Know what they must pay attention to during each game or sport situation.
- Have learned how to maintain focus and resist distractions, whether they come from the environment or from within themselves.
- Are able to regain their focus when concentration is lost during competition.
- Have learned how to play in the “here-and-now”, without regard to either past or anticipated future events.
Application of the Nine Mental Skills to Non-sport Performance Situations
The nine mental skills associated with athletic success are the same mental skills associated with performance in a wide variety of non-sport, performance situations. Let’s take a look at some of these.
Characteristics of A Performance Situation:
- The situation is often scheduled or anticipated in advance.
- The situation usually has a defined beginning and an end.
- The circumstances are known in advance.
- The rules and constraints are known in advance.
- The results are evaluated by standards (or natural consequences) that are usually known in advance.
- The results are uncertain and may involve psychological risk and/or danger.
- The results are important to the performer.
- The performer’s behavior is goal-oriented.
- The results are influenced by the performer’s skillful behavior
Examples of Performance Situations
- An important job interview
- Performing a solo with a symphony orchestra
- Auditioning for a role in a drama production
- Giving a class presentation
- Taking a driver’s examination
- Giving a talk to the PTA
- Testifying in court
- Taking the state medical exam
- Performing brain surgery
- Landing an airplane
- A firefighter entering a burning building
- Participating in a military or police attack
- An astronaut landing a vehicle on the surface of the moon
- Rock Climbing
1. Have a weekly sports night.
Every Wednesday, for example, get everyone up and moving. One game to play is the fit-deck shuffle. Create a series of playing cards featuring family-friendly exercises, such as bear-crawling or ape-walking. Each family member picks a card and performs the exercise pictured until all the cards have been dealt. You can also buy a ready-made set of exercise cards from FitDeck (fitdeck.com).
2. Walk or run for charity.
Model the value of exercise — and of giving back to society — by teaming up with your children for a fund-raising race. When her husband and father-in-law participated in the Father’s Day Race for Prostate Cancer, Jodi Zielinski, of Upper Montclair, New Jersey, took her 3-year-old daughter, Noa, to watch them run. When the race was over, she entered Noa in the kids’ race that followed. “She didn’t win but she had a great time,” says Zielinski, who hopes to make it an annual family tradition.
3. Put kids to work in the yard.
If autumn brings down leaves in your area, make a game out of catching them on a windy day — see who can catch the most yellow, orange, or red ones, suggests Zuercher. Then rake them into piles — give the kids child-sized rakes so they can help — and have fun jumping in them, or take turns completely covering one another in leaves. After a snowfall, let kids help clear the porch or walkway, then see who can make the most snow angels. Older kids can help build a snowman — and even toss a few snowballs.
4. Team up for gardening.
Kids are great at digging up dirt, so let them turn over the soil and help you plant new bulbs. Research shows that gardening is as good as weight training when it comes to preventing osteoporosis, and if you’re planting vegetables, it can make them more appetizing to kids. Dawn Schwartz, of Livingston, New Jersey, has her 3-year-old daughter, Samantha, help water the plants. “She loves to mush her hands in the soil,” she says. In the summer, set up a sprinkler to water the lawn and challenge kids to duck the droplets.
5. Walk the dog.
New research from North American Association on the Study of Obesity shows that dog-owners had more fun losing weight and were able to keep it off longer than non-pup-owners. Don’t have a pooch? Go look for some. Somers, New York, mom Mary Rose Almasi gets her two kids, ages 5 and 3, to go for a walk after dinner by suggesting they go “looking for dogs.” “Luckily, there are a few at the end of my long street. That’s the carrot I dangle,” she says. “It works like a charm.”
Watching sports with your kids is one of life’s great pleasures. If you’re usually careful about how much TV they watch, then the big game can be an exciting occasion — and something to savor instead of stressing over. But as we all know, there are plenty of interferences to enjoying sports as a family: age-inappropriate commercials, unsportsmanlike conduct on the field and waaay overdoing the tube time.
Keep these tips in mind to enrich your family’s sports watching.
1. Just say no to “enhancements.” In other words, mute the commercials. Your kids don’t need to see ads for Viagra, liquor or other adult products advertised during sports events. Use the break to talk to your kids about the game instead.
2. Share your love of the game. Involve your kids in your enjoyment of the game. Many a fond memory has formed from the experience of watching the game and hanging out with dear old Dad (or Mom!).
3. Be a good sport. Point out good sportsmanship (and call out sore losers). And remember, your kids watch how you respond to the game — so emphasize athletic effort and teamwork.
4. Get in the game! If it’s basketball you love, practice hoops by lobbing things in the trash. Use half-time to dribble a soccer ball around the living room. Or get outside and practice the sports you love to watch.
5. Have a game plan. While you can’t always predict when the Celtics will be in the playoffs, you can take advantage of your DVR or TiVo. Not everyone in the family will be into every game, and some won’t want to be “forced” to watch. As always, create a balance.
Hey, sports fan! Obviously, there are plenty of things you probably don’t know about the less popular sports out there. For example, did you know that a curling rink in Halifax was used as a temporary morgue in the aftermath of the Titanic disaster? Understandable, not many people do.
But what about lesser-known facts of the more popular, widely covered sports? No matter how avid a fan you consider yourself, here are some facts you probably didn’t know about the sports you watch every day.
1. NFL refs also receive Super Bowl rings.
They’re not as large or impressive as the rings received by the players, but all referees who officiate the Super Bowl get a serious piece of bling to commemorate the day.
2. The volleyball comes from a basketball’s bladder.
Or at least they once did. When he first devised the sport in 1895, William G. Morgan tried to use a basketball, but found it too heavy for what he had in mind. So instead he played with the basketball’s inflatable rubber inside (similar to a bike wheel’s inner tube), until a custom ball was created just for the sport by A.G. Spalding.
3. The Pittsburgh Pirates’ almost built a new stadium in the middle of a river.
Okay, more like over a river. In a construction proposal by the NADCO Engineering Co. back in the ’50s, the Pirates’ new stadium would have sat directly over the Monongahela River. If built, the 70,000 seating capacity structure would have also contained 600 hotel rooms, 4,500 parking stalls and 100 air conditioned bowling lanes.
4. Despite running about three hours, actual playing time in a Major League Baseball game is under 18 minutes.
According to the Wall Street Journal’s own calculations, the 17 minutes and 58 seconds of action includes “balls in play, runner advancement attempts on stolen bases, wild pitches, pitches (balls, strikes, fouls and balls hit into play), trotting batters (on home runs, walks and hit-by-pitches), pickoff throws and even one fake-pickoff throw.” Take all those away, and the amount of time that is pure action on the field is about 5 minutes and 47 seconds.
5. Until 1936, the jump ball in basketball took place at center court after every single made basket.
And you thought baseball games dragged on. Basketball could have just been like this, over and over and over…
6. An incomplete forward pass in football used to earn teams a 15-yard penalty.
Not only that, but if the pass was incomplete and never touched, the defense then took possession of the ball. This was all early in the 20th century before professional football existed and college football was the bee’s knees. Though many established coaches at the time regarded the forward pass as a rather wussy way to play, the lower levels of contact seen during passing plays may have saved lives. In 1905, there were 18 football fatalities between high school and college leagues.
7. The Philadelphia Eagles and the Pittsburgh Steelers once combined to form the Steagles.
Due to so many of their players serving in the military during World War II, the Eagles and Steelers combined in 1943 to form one team called the Steagles. And the next year, the Steelers joined with the Chicago Cardinals for the same reason. The Cardeelers? Car dealers?
8. Olympic gold medals are actually made of silver.
The 1912 Olympic Games were the last to include gold medals actually made of solid gold. Currently, the gold medals are 93 percent silver and six percent copper, leaving about one percent (or six grams) for the highly prized gold finish.
9. Japanese golfers carry hole-in-one insurance.
In Japan, it is customary for golfers who’ve hit a hole-in-one to throw a celebration for their closest companions, though this can also be as simple as buying them all a celebratory gift. Nearly four million Japanese golfers carry golf insurance, paying a $65 premium every year for $3500 in coverage. So that’s why your friends in Japan were celebrating your hole-in-one so emphatically.
10. Former MLB catcher Harry Chiti was the first player ever to be traded for himself.
Chiti was originally traded from the Cleveland Indians to the New York Mets for a “player to be named later,” but after fifteen terrible games with the Mets, Chiti became that player and was shipped back to Cleveland.
11. The word “Soccer” is an 1800s slang term.
“Soccer” comes from the abbreviation for “association,” or “assoc,” as in Football Association. According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, it began as “socca,” then morphed into “socker,” and finally into “soccer.”
12. Every ball used in Major League Baseball is dirty.
In order to take the slick factory sheen off and allow pitchers to get a better grip, Major League Baseball wipes down each baseball with mud from an undisclosed location on the Delaware River. And it’s been done this way for close to 75 years now.
13. There has never been a documented perfect March Madness bracket.
Statistically speaking, you have a one in 9.2 quintillion chance of filling out a perfect bracket. One in 9,223,372,036,854,775,808 to be very, very exact. An autistic teenager from Illinois was perfect in his first two rounds in 2010 (a 1 in 13,460,000 feat), but alas did not go on to attain ultimate bracket perfection. And the incentive to do so got many, many dollars sweeter this year when billionaire Warren Buffet offered $1 billion (billion with a “b”) to anyone who fills out a perfect March Madness bracket. So yeah, good luck with that.
You are most likely a combination of any of the following 4 basic body types. So don’t worry, just do the hard work based on your body type and follow your meal plan. If you don’t eat properly, you won’t shape your best body. Its possible to have layers of fat covering those hard-earned muscles!
Training Techniques That Are Good For All Body Types
a) Jump training (plyometrics) and other high-speed exercises can be incorporated into any workout for all body types. Plyometrics and high-speed training will give your body better definition and give you faster results. That is why athletes’ bodies are so well defined. Good jump training exercises are squat jumps, pike jumps, depth jumps, jump rope and box jumps.
b) Similarly, sprinting is one of the best body sculptor exercises available. Avoid long, steady-state cardio sessions (defined as 40 minutes or more) unless you are a beginner or recovering from illness or injuries. Too many slow, long, steady-state cardio sessions have been proven to waste away your valuable muscle mass.
Basic Body Types
Body types for women can be broken down into 4 basic types. Keep in mind that every woman needs to do core exercises like planks, bridges, bird dogs, cobras and back extensions regardless of body type. And, sprint interval cardio sessions (20 minutes per session) are superior for fat-burning and heart-health purposes. Some women may need extra ab work.
Body Type 1
A woman with a thin, linear shape is an ectomorph. Muscle mass needs to be built on the entire body. A woman with this body type has trouble gaining muscle mass.
Good strength exercises for body type 1:
Concentrate on compound movements like squats, bench press, deadlift, lunges, step ups, shoulder press and bentover rows to build major muscle groups and add definition to your body. Single joint exercises like calf raises, triceps dips, biceps curls and leg curls are needed to a lesser degree.
If you are an ectomorph, make sure you eat enough! Many times, a woman with a thin, linear body type can “eat anything she wants” and still have trouble gaining weight! Or, she will “eat like a bird” and remain skinny. So, weight training and proper eating is critical for building muscle if you have this body type.
Body Type 2
You have thin arms and legs with excess fat in the mid-section of your body. You need to burn abdominal fat and build muscle mass in the other parts of your body.
Belly fat causes serious health problems! Scientist have learned much more about fat cells (adipose tissue) than ever before.
Researchers from Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis found that abdominal fat cells secrete inflammatory proteins that cause damage to blood vessels and other cells, leading to diseases like cancer, heart disease and Metabolic Syndrome.
Of course, don’t just focus on your belly fat. Focus on burning total body fat with full body circuit strength training and short, intense cardio sessions.
Strength exercises for fat loss should focus on maximizing your time at the gym. Build more muscle mass to speed up your metabolism and burn more fat.
Good strength exercises for body type 2:
Upper body: bench press, pullups, tricep pushdowns, shoulder press, one-arm bentover rows and biceps curl.
Lower body: squats, lunges, step ups, deadlift, calf raises and leg curls.
Abdominal area: ab ball curl ups, reverse knee ups, hanging leg raises, back extensions, bridges, planks, medicine ball chops and medicine ball trunk rotations.
Body Type 3
You are petite in your upper body and heavy in your lower body. Build muscle mass in your upper body and burn fat and tone your hips, thighs and butt. Exercise your body in all 3 planes of motion to improve the 3-D shape of your arms, shoulders, chest, back, butt, hips and thighs. An example would be a grouping of walking lunges, side lunges and transverse lunges.
Good strength exercises for body type 3:
Upper body: Bench press, pullups, lateral/front raises, tricep pushdowns, shoulder press, one-arm bentover row and bicep curls are all good exercises. You will need to challenge yourself with heavier weights to build muscle (you won’t get bulky)!
Lower body: Do light weight circuit training with high repetitions (10-12) to burn lower body fat (squats, lunges, step ups, leg curls, cable leg abductions/adductions, etc.). Also, incorporate other one-legged exercises such as power step ups, single leg squats, single leg good mornings, single leg medicine ball exercises, etc. These types of exercises are more intense than two-legged exercises. High-speed jump training is also effective for this body type.
Good jump training exercises are squat jumps, pike jumps, depth jumps, jump rope and box jumps. Sprint interval cardio also works well for this body type.
Body Type 4
This is your body type if you have wide shoulders and a narrow waist. You tend to gain weight evenly throughout your body. You are probably athletic.
You will need a full body fat burning program. Light weight circuit training with high repetitions (10-12) works best. High-speed jump training is also effective.
You tend to be muscular with large bones and thick joints. Due to having more muscle mass, you usually don’t have weight problems unless you overeat and undertrain. You will also respond to weight training by building muscle mass much faster than other body types.
You probably know where your body stores the most fat. When you train, don’t neglect areas of your body. And, spot training certain areas, such as abs, won’t work. But, you can do extra work for problem areas.
Go to work and start shaping a sexier body!
- Play for club and traveling teams while in elementary school, and later join your junior high and high school teams. Find your natural position and play there throughout your career. Attend any soccer camps in your area.
- Try out for a Development Academy club team. There are two age groups for club teams: Under 15/16 and Under 17/18. You will be assigned to one based on your age and skill level. The tryout process is different for each team, so you will have to contact the teams directly. Generally, your acceptance to the Academy is based on your skill set and past on-field success. Many players concurrently play on their high school and Academy teams.
- Impress coaches with your play, and you may be invited to play for one of the youth national teams, which are categorized as Under 17, Under 18, Under 20 and Under 23. The number of players who get called up hovers around 100. Some players also elect to play in college after playing in the Academy to continue developing their skills.
- Excel on the youth national level, while playing strongly in the off-season for your college or club team. If you happen to catch the eye of one of the national team coaches, you will be selected for the player pool, a group of talented players with various levels of playing experience that coaches can draw from to replenish the national team’s roster. Players are often evaluated by coaches, who frequently shuffle their rosters by inviting players from the pool to play for the national team.
- The company addresses the sponsorship issue on its corporate website. It recommends that proposals be sent to its Sports Marketing Department at adidas AG Global Sports Marketing World of Sports 91074 Herzogenaurach Germany. The website states that an adidas representative will respond to your request. The company does not list any specific sponsorship requirements or ask for specific information.
Sports and Entertainment Sponsorships
- Most of the individual sponsorships at adidas are for athletes. In 2014, that roster included soccer star David Beckham and basketball standouts Dwight Howard, Candace Parker and Tim Duncan. However, the company has also struck deals with non-athletes such as entertainers Katy Perry, Cyclops, The Like, B.o.B., A-Track and Busy P. The company has also sponsored many prominent sports organizations, including The 2008 and 2012 Olympic Committees, the Boston Marathon and the NBA.
Sponsorships for Excellence, Success and Celebrity
- One reason adidas sponsors individuals and organizations, it explains on its corporate website, is these affiliates embody excellence. The company defines that in terms of teamwork and positive character traits, such as honesty, pride and discipline. In sports and entertainment, however, excellence usually equates with success and celebrity. A FootAsylum article on adidas’ sponsorship choices acknowledges the connection between celebrity and sales and how the business benefits outweigh the costs.
Sponsorships With a Social Policy Purpose
- The company also supports disaster relief and sponsors many relatively unknown organizations with a charitable purpose. On an adidas website devoted to these projects, for example, the company lists its support for education in Pakistan, a partnership with a German organization devoted to persons with disabilities and how it promotes children’s sports in several Brazilian cities. If you’re a non-celebrity, your request should emphasize the social benefits of the sponsorship. The company wants to be known as a socially-engaged organization involved in a variety of initiatives benefiting local communities. In each example given, the organization receiving the sponsorship was already up and running and working to achieve aims that adidas supported.
- Men’s Nike shoes tend to have an equal width between the forefoot and heel. Women’s Nike shoes most often have a narrower heel than forefoot. Some women with a wider foot will often select men’s shoes for comfort, because women’s shoes are often more narrow than men’s shoes. According to Nike, other fit differences between men and women’s shoes include arch length and height.
- Women’s Nike shoe sizes 7 through 12 are exactly one size smaller than the men’s shoes. For example, a size 7 in women’s shoes is a size 6 in men’s. A size 11.5 in women’s sizes would be a size 10.5 in men’s. Sizes below 7 in a women’s size shoe or below 6 in men sizes are less consistent. For a complete Nike size conversion chart with men, women and children shoes sizes, visit the official Nike website.
- Stylistically, women’s shoes come in a tremendous variety of bright colors and tend to use white in the sole and design of the shoe. Men’s shoes tend to use a lot of greens, blues and reds, and use black more frequently than white in their soles and design. A look at the difference in style between the men’s Nike “Free” and the women’s Nike “Free” line reveals certain consistent similarities. For instance, the design on both lines is fairly clean and simple, and the shape of the shoes is very similar. The main difference between the lines is the color palette, and again the women’s shoes have a brighter range of color choice than the more earthy colors of men’s shoes.
- Nike offers more sports shoes options for men than they do for women. The styles also vary. For instance, with the women’s softball cleats, all of the options of cleats are low-top sneakers. However, there are several choices of high-top sneakers in the men’s section. Some women may choose a man’s Nike sport’s shoe for better style and fitting options. Since the Nike sports shoes are all about finding a great fit, men and women should feel free to try on options from either gender.
- Clean your clubs extremely well. This is very simple to do. Squirt dish washing soap into hot water and let foam up. Take a dish rag or towel and clean the entire club thoroughly, including the handle.
- Place the clubs in a nice golf bag. Most golf clubs come in bag but if you bought these clubs without a bag, get one. These bags can be found in any sporting good store or major retail center.
- Search the Internet for clubs similar to yours see what they are being sold for. These prices will vary and you may have to reconsider the amount you want to sell them for.
- Visit local sporting good stores and golf shops on country clubs and ask if they would be interested in buying your clubs as a set. Depending on the year, make, model, and condition of the clubs, you may have some luck getting rid of them in this way.
- Put the clubs on the Internet. eBay, Old Clubs, and The Golf Classifieds are just a few of the Internet sites that regularly sell used golf clubs.
- Sell each club individually. If you cannot find anyone to buy the used golf clubs as a whole, sell them each individually. Play It Again Sports store in your area, they will more than likely give you a good price for your clubs as a set or individually.
- Sprinkle confetti on the table or buffet. This works best if you place a plastic table cover first, and makes cleanup easier. Choose confetti in the team’s colors, or, if it’s available, buy confetti that is shaped liked sports balls. This is optional, but makes the centerpiece stand out more.
- Find balls of different sizes. You can use regulation-size balls, miniature party favors or toys shaped like sports balls. The balls can also serve as party favors. Arrange them in the center of the table.
- Fill team-colored balloons with helium. Attach each balloon to a piece of string or ribbon. If you want everything to look very coordinated, choose string or ribbon in the team’s colors.
- Attach one or two balloons to each sports ball. You could try tying them around the balls, but it is easiest to tape them down with good-quality Scotch tape. Make sure that you tape the balloons onto the underside of the balls so that the tape is hidden.
- Alternatively, if you only have one ball, tie a bunch of balloons together. Tape the bunch of balloons to the underside of the ball. This works best for footballs, basketballs, soccer balls and other large sports balls. If you have only one smaller ball, such as a baseball, tape the bunch of balloons to the table and place the ball on top of where you place the tape.
Hall of Fame
- There is a hall of fame specifically devoted to women’s basketball. Located in Knoxville, Tennessee, the Women’s Basketball Hall of Fame opened in 1999. The building houses artifacts and memorabilia commemorating the history of women’s basketball. The hall also recognizes contributors to women’s basketball. The Women’s Basketball Hall of Fame building also encompasses the world’s largest basketball, that is 30 feet tall and weighs 10 tons.
- Born in 1952, Pat Summitt, women’s head coach at the University of Tennessee, is the all-time winningest coach at any level in college basketball. Since taking over the reins for the Volunteers in 1974, she has won eight national championships and recorded more than 1,000 victories. She is inducted in both the Basketball Hall of Fame and the Women’s Baskeball Hall of Fame. The basketball court at the University of Tennessee is named The Summitt in her honor.
- The inaugural season of the WNBA was 1997. Eight teams competed in the WNBA’s first season. Original franchises were located in Charlotte, Cleveland, Detroit, Houston, New York, Phoenix, Sacramento, and Utah. Tina Thompson was the first player chosen in the inaugural WNBA Draft and the first MVP was Cynthia Cooper. In its first season, the WNBA drew more than one million fans. The Houston Comets own the distinction of winning the first WNBA championship, defeating the NY Liberty.
- In 1936, a team called the All American Red Heads competed in exhibition games across the country against men’s teams playing by men ‘s rules. The Red Heads, one of the first pro women’s basketball squads, were very popular and would play up to 200 games a year. Members of the Red Heads were required to wear makeup, don red wigs, or tint their hair crimson.
- Born in Lithuania, Senda Berenson Abbott is known as the Mother of Women’s Basketball. She was responsible for writing the first rule book for women’s basketball and organized the first women’s basketball game at Smith College in Northampton, Massachusetts. In addition, she chaired the Women’s Basketball Rules Committee for more than a decade. In 1985, Berenson Abbott was the first women inducted into the Basketball Hall of Fame in Springfield, Massachusetts for her contributions to the sport.
- Over the years, the rules of women’s basketball have evolved. Rules changed as society’s views of women in athletics changed, according to historians. In 1901, a Women’s Basketball Rules Committee was formed in attempt to make rules more uniform. Early rules stated there was no coaching allowed from the sidelines during contests, timeouts were not allowed, and there were no substitutions. Up until the 1930s, the game was played on three courts and with as many as nine players on a side. In the 1930s, six-on-six play began, and teams consisted of three forwards and three guards. Forwards were the only players allowed to score, and no players were allowed to cross midcourt — so it was basically three-on-three on both halves of the court. In 1971, five-on-five play was adopted in the NCAA, along with a 30-second shot clock, a decade before men’s college basketball would add a shot clock.
Setting Date, Time and Alarm
- To enter the date and time setting mode, press and hold the “mode” button, located on the top-left of the watch. Continue holding this button until the display begins to flash. This first display is the alarm setting, should you choose to set an alarm to go off. If you’d like to set the alarm, use the “alarm” button on the bottom-right of the watch to advance the hours to the desired one. Then press the mode button again; this will cycle through the minutes and seconds of the alarm to allow you to set those as well. Once you have set the alarm, you can press the “date” button at the top-right of the watch to proceed to the regular time setting. These numbers, which will now be flashing, also are adjusted by pressing the alarm button to change them. Pressing the date button again will now cycle through the hours, minutes, seconds and the date. As you continue to press the date button, the All-Sport will continuously cycle through these options; don’t worry if you forget to set one, you can simply press the date button a few times until you get back to the setting you need to change. Once the alarm, time and date have all been set, you can press the mode button one more time to exit to the normal watch mode that will display the date and time.
Using Chime and Alarm
- The Armitron All-Sport features both an alarm and an hourly chime. The alarm function will cause the watch to continuously beep at the selected time until you turn it off by pressing a button. The chime will cause the watch to beep once every hour. You can turn both these features on and off by pressing and holding the alarm button and while holding it pressing the date button. The first time you do this, the chime will turn on and a small house symbol will be displayed on the watch face. Performing this button-pressing sequence again will turn on the alarm, which in turn displays a small clock icon on the watch face. Each successive pressing of this button sequence will alternate between the chime and the alarm, turning them either on or off.
- The All-Sport also features a built-in backlight to help you view the watch in dark conditions. This light can be activated by pressing the “light” button on the bottom-left of the watch. Pressing this button is the only way to activate the light, and doing so will only cause the watch to illuminate for a few seconds at a time.
In most cases, you may simply tell which gender the jacket belongs to by glancing at the buttons — men’s buttons on on the right side while women’s are on the left.
Much speculation exists about why button placement varies by gender, but no one really knows for sure. It could be that men’s buttons are on right side because men have dressed themselves for hundreds of years while women were often dressed by servants. This makes sense when you consider that most people are right-handed.
Other theories suggest that the right-side buttons also may have made it easier for men to draw a sword or other weapon while hunting while women needed left-buttoned jackets and shirts to prevent breezes blowing into their clothing during side-saddle horseback riding.
- Buttoning position is not 100 percent accurate in determining which gender the jacket is for. Button placement does not translate to zipper placement, either — zippers can be on either side for men’s or women’s jackets.
Cut and Proportion
The way in which a jacket is cut also signals for whom the jacket is designed. Men’s jackets typically have broader shoulders and backs built in to accommodate men’s larger upper bodies. The chests of women’s jackets are more generously cut to accommodate breasts.
Longer sleeves in comparison to the length of the jacket — especially in cropped ones such as leather bombers — are a clue that it’s designed for a man. Men’s jackets typically also have larger lapels.
Women’s jackets tend to have a bit of a cinched-in waist. Take a trench, for example, in which the area where the sash sits is narrower to emphasize a smaller waist. Men’s jackets are cut straight up and down to reflect a boxier body. Women’s jackets may flare slightly at the hips because women need to accommodate curves in the lower body.
The differences in men’s and women’s jackets also depend on the style of apparel. Men’s leather jackets, for example, tend to be larger and longer than women’s. Men’s suit jackets are boxy and, by definition, pair with men’s suit pants; women’s suit jackets are more tailored, fitted and cinched. With blazers, notice the details. Stitching that is curling, quilted or floral may indicate the clothing is made for a woman. Silver or gold buttons are classic on men’s styles.
- Select a pair of briefs that you’ll use for your bra. Make sure the waistline of the underwear will fit around your ribs comfortably.
- Lay the underwear flat on a table with the elastic waistband facing away from you. Smooth out any wrinkles in the underwear.
- Notice the seam lines on either side of the crotch of the underwear. You will be using these lines as initial guides.
- Pick up your scissors and cut into the crotch area approximately 1/2 inch away from one of the side seams. You are beginning to cut the hole that your head will eventually go through. Leave material by the seams to give you room to hem the material for a smoother look on the neckline.
- Separate the front and back of the crotch material you just cut. Cut the front part of your material in a semicircle between the seams, finishing the cut by guiding it approximately 1/2 inch from the opposite seam from where you started.
- Flip the underwear over and continue cutting along your initial cut in a semicircle for your back. Do this the same way you did the front, but make the semicircle slightly smaller because the back of a sports bra is generally higher than the front.
- Tuck under the rough cut edges and pin them to create a smooth neckline. Iron the material so it is flat and smooth for easier sewing.
- Use needle and thread to make small hemming stitches. Slip your head through the hole in the crotch and slip your arms out the leg holes to test out your freshly made sports bra.
- Complete a degree in athletic training at an accredited college. You will need to earn at least a bachelors degree to be considered for an athletic trainer position with a professional organization.
- Study nutrition, psychology, therapeutic exercise, human anatomy and physiology, and gain clinical experience for 2 years under an approved instructor. This clinical study should include an internship, on-the-job training on a sports field during a game and lab work.
- Attain state certification. Athletic trainers in most states need to meet certain requirements before they start their first day of work. Check the laws in your state and be sure to have certification before applying for a position.
- Contemplate working for a sports team. Depending on your training and temperament, you can pursue a position with a baseball, football or hockey team. Being an athletic trainer for a sports team involves interaction with many different personalities, travel and a high pressure environment in addition to constant treatment of injuries. This high-profile job pays well, but be sure you can handle the pressure before applying.
- Contact athletic trainer organizations about job openings. Your college will also help you set up job interviews and assist with job placement prior to graduation.